# Instruction Clock Cycle Calculation

```
Some instructions require additional clock cycles due to a "Next
Instruction Component" identified by a "+m" in the instruction
clock cycle listings.  This is due to the prefetch queue being
purge on a control transfers.	Below is the general rule for
calculating "m":

88/86 not applicable
286  "m" is the number of bytes in the next instruction
386  "m" is the number of components in the next instruction
(the instruction coding (each byte), plus the data and
the displacement are all considered components)

8088/8086  Effective Address (EA) Calculation

Description				  Clock Cycles

Displacement						6
Base or Index (BX,BP,SI,DI)				5
Displacement+(Base or Index)				9
Base+Index (BP+DI,BX+SI)				7
Base+Index (BP+SI,BX+DI)				8
Base+Index+Displacement (BP+DI,BX+SI)		       11
Base+Index+Displacement (BP+SI+disp,BX+DI+disp)	       12

- add 4 cycles for word operands at odd addresses
- add 2 cycles for segment override
- 80188/80186 timings differ from those of the 8088/8086/80286

"TS" is defined as switching from VM/486 or 80286 TSS to one of
the following:

┌───────────────────────────────────────┐
│	        New Task		│
├───────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬───────┤
┌───────────────┤486 TSS│486 TSS│386 TSS│386 TSS│286 TSS│
│   Old Task	│ (VM=0)│ (VM=1)│ (VM=0)│ (VM=1)│	│
└───────────────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┤
386 TSS (VM=0)	│	│	│  309  │  226  │  282  │
├───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┤
386 TSS (VM=1)	│	│	│  314  │  231  │  287  │
├───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┤
386 CPU/286 TSS	│	│	│  307  │  224  │  280  │
├───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┤
486 CPU/286 TSS	│  199	│  177	│	│	│  180	│
└───────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴───────┘

Miscellaneous

- all timings are for best case and do not take into account wait
states, instruction alignment, the state of the prefetch queue,
DMA refresh cycles, cache hits/misses or exception processing.
- to convert clocks to nanoseconds divide one microsecond by the
processor speed in MegaHertz:

(1000MHz/(n MHz)) = X nanoseconds

- see	8086 Architecture

```